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Miljöinformation

Miljöpåverkan

Doravirin

Miljörisk: Användning av doravirin har bedömts medföra försumbar risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Doravirin är potentiellt persistent.
Bioackumulering: Doravirin har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


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Detaljerad miljöinformation

Environmental Risk Classification


Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)

PEC is calculated according to the following formula:


PEC (μg/L) = (A*109 *(100-R))/(365*P*V*D*100) = 1.37*10-6 *A(100-R)


PEC = 0.00013 μg/L


Where:

A = 0.93 kg (total sold amount API in Sweden year 2020, data from IQVIA) (Ref. I)

R = 0 % removal rate (worst case assumption)

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 10 *106 

V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (ECHA default) (Ref. II)

D = factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (ECHA default) (Ref. II)


Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)


Ecotoxicological studies

Green Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) (OECD 201) (Reference III): 

EC50 72h > 5.8 mg/L

NOEC 72h = 5.8 mg/L

No effects noted for any endpoint (yield and growth rate)


Crustacean, water flea (Daphnia magna) (OECD 211) (Ref. IV): 

Chronic toxicity

NOEC 21d = 0.38 mg/L (reproduction)


Fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (OECD 210) (Ref. V): 

Chronic toxicity

NOEC 32d = 1 mg/L

No effects noted for any endpoint (hatching, survival, growth)


PNEC = 38 μg/L (0.38 mg/ L/ 10 based on the most sensitive NOEC for the daphnia and an assessment factor (AF) of 10)


Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)

PEC/PNEC = 0.00013 /38 = 3.4E-06, i.e. PEC/PNEC ≤ 0.1 which justifies the phrase "Use of doravirine has been considered to result in insignificant environmental risk.


Biotic degradation

Biodegradation in Activated Sludge

2% to CO2 in 28 days (OECD 314B) (Ref VI)


[14C] doravirine was evaluated for biodegradability in wastewater according to OECD Guideline 314B. Activated sludge was dosed with approximately 1 mg/L [14C] doravirine. Mass balance of the biotic sludge system ranged from 96.0 to 102% of the applied radioactivity (% AR) over the course of the study. Ultimate biodegradation (conversion to CO2) occurred at 2.1% AR in the biotic activated sludge test solutions at day 28. Two minor regions of radioactivity (<10% AR) were observed in the HPLC analyses of the biotic sludge in addition to the parent peak. The overall primary biodegradation half-life of doravirine in the biotic sludge was calculated to be 158 days. The elimination rate constant, ke, was 0.0044 days-1.

  

Sediment Transformation (OECD 308) (Ref. VII):

DT50 (total system) = 136-154 days


Transformation of [14C] doravirine was evaluated in two aerobic sediment/water systems at 20°C for 102 days following OECD Guideline 308. Sediment/water systems were dosed with 1 mg/L [14C] doravirine. Carbon dioxide (CO2) produced due to biodegradation was trapped and measured over the test period.


Water-sediment samples were analyzed at 0, 3, 13, 27, 56, and 102 days of incubation. Approximately 150 mL of acetonitrile was added to each sediment sample and the sample was capped and hand shaken to homogenize. The samples were then placed on a shaker table at approximately 200 rpm for 10 minutes and then centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 minutes. The sample extracts were transferred to a graduated cylinder, the volume was recorded, and samples were analyzed by LSC (2 × 1.0 mL). With the exception of the day 0 samples, the extraction procedure was repeated two times for each sampling interval; once using 80/20 acetonitrile/purified reagent water (v/v) and once using 80/20/0.1 acetonitrile/purified reagent water/formic acid (v/v/v) for a total of three extractions. Due to < 2% AR recovered from the second extraction, the day 0 sediment samples were only extracted a total of two times. The extracts were then combined and duplicate 1.0-mL aliquots were analyzed by LSC. A portion of the combined extracts was then concentrated to near dryness under vacuum by rotary evaporation using minimal heating. The concentrated sample was transferred to a graduated glass conical test tube, the flask was rinsed with a portion of 50/50 acetonitrile/purified reagent water (v/v), and the rinses were added to the test tube. The resulting volume was recorded and the samples vortexed for 30 seconds, then shaken to mix. Duplicate 0.1-mL aliquots of the concentrated samples were subsampled for LSC analysis. A portion of the concentrate was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for five minutes to precipitate any solids and samples were analyzed by LSC (1 × 0.05 mL). A portion of the centrifuged sample was transferred into an autosampler vial and analyzed by HPLC/RAM. An aliquot (20 µL) of the appropriate MK-1439 stock solution was added to each vial prior to HPLC/RAM analysis. Average recovery ranged from 90 to 110% over the 102 day test period.

The half-life of doravirine in the total water/sediment test systems was 136 to 154 days at 20°C (corresponding to 290 to 329 days at 12°C). Evidence of primary biodegradation was observed for [14C] doravirine in the aerobic water/sediment test systems. Several minor peaks were observed in some of the chromatograms for the Taunton River and Weweantic River test samples. In all cases, these minor peaks represented less than 10% AR in the water and sediment extracts and were not characterized further.


Ultimate biodegradation of [14C] doravirine was observed in the aerobic samples with evolution of 14CO2 reaching an average maximum of 5.06 and 2.04 % AR for the Taunton River and Weweantic River aerobic test samples, respectively, at day 102. Generation of volatile organic compounds was negligible and observed at an average maximum of 0.0114 and 0.0110% AR for the Taunton River and Weweantic River aerobic test samples, respectively, at day 102.


Justification of chosen biotic degradation phrase:

Since half-life >120 days for total system, doravirine is potentially persistent.


Bioaccumulation

Partitioning coefficient (OECD 107) (Ref.VIII): 

Log Kow = 2.08 at pH 7


Justification of chosen bioaccumulation phrase:

Since log Kow < 4, doravirine has low potential for bioaccumulation.


References

  1. Data from IQVIA ”Consumption assessment in kg for input to environmental classification - updated 2021 (data 2020)”.

  2. ECHA, European Chemicals Agency. 2008 Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm

  3. Softcheck KA. Doravirine (MK-1439) - 72-hour toxicity test with the freshwater green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata following OECD guideline 201. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 7 Jan 2016. Study No. 359.6979.

  4. Shaw AC. MK-1439 - full life-cycle toxicity test with water fleas, Daphnia magna, under static renewal conditions following OECD guideline 211. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 16 Mar 2018. Report No. 359.6981.

  5. Sayers LE. MK-1439 - early life-stage toxicity test with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): OECD Guideline 210, OCSPP Guideline 850.1400. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 16 March 2018. Study No. 359.6980.

  6. Griffith AW. [14C]MK-1439 - Determination of the biodegradability of a test substance in activated sludge based on OECD method 314B. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 1 Jul 2016. Study No. 359.6985.

  7. Letourneau M. [14C]MK-1439 - Aerobic transformation in aquatic sediment systems following OECD guideline 308. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 27 Sep 2016. Study No. 359.6984.

  8. Grenier AC. MK-1439 - Determining the partition coefficient (noctanol/water) by the flask-shaking method following OECD guideline 107. Smithers Viscient; 17 Dec 2012. Study No.359.6676.

Tenofovirdisoproxil

Miljörisk: Användning av tenofovirdisoproxil har bedömts medföra försumbar risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Tenofovirdisoproxil bryts ned i miljön.
Bioackumulering: Tenofovirdisoproxil har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


Läs mer

Detaljerad miljöinformation


Environmental Risk Classification


Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)

PEC is calculated according to the following formula:


PEC (μg/L) = (A*109 *(100-R))/(365*P*V*D*100) = 1.5*10-6 *A(100-R)


PEC = 0.044 μg/L


Where:

A = 294 kg (total sold amount API in Sweden year 2018, data from IQVIA) (Ref. I)

R = 0 % removal rate (worst case assumption)

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 9 *106 

V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (ECHA default) (Ref. II)

D = factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (ECHA default) (Ref. II)


Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)


Ecotoxicological studies

Green Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) (OECD 201) (Reference III): 

EC50 72h = 69 mg/L (growth rate)

NOEC 72h = 18 mg/L


Crustacean, water flea (Daphnia magna) (OECD 211) (Ref. IV): 

Chronic toxicity

NOEC 21d = 12 mg/L (reproduction)


Fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (OECD 210) (Ref. V): 

Chronic toxicity

NOEC 32d = 9 mg/L

No effects noted for any endpoint (hatching, survival, growth)


PNEC = 900 μg/L (9 mg/L/ 10 based on the most sensitive NOEC for the fathead minnow and an assessment factor (AF) of 10)


Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)

PEC/PNEC = 0.044/900 = 0.00005, i.e. PEC/PNEC ≤ 0.1 which justifies the phrase "Use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has been considered to result in insignificant environmental risk.


Biotic degradation

Biodegradation in Activated Sludge

3.66% to CO2 in 28 days (OECD 314B) (Ref VI)


[14C] Tenofovir DF was evaluated for biodegradability in wastewater according to OECD Guideline 314B. Activated sludge was dosed with approximately 1 mg/L [14C] tenofovir DF. [14C] Tenofovir DF underwent partial primary and ultimate biodegradation over the course of the 28-day study. Mass balance of the biotic sludge system ranged from 94.1 to 100% of the applied radioactivity (% AR). Ultimate biodegradation (conversion to CO2) at 28 days was 3.66% AR in the biotic activated sludge test solution and did not occur in the abiotic activated sludge test solutions. [14C] Tenofovir DF was detected in the biotic sludge at 102% AR on day 0, decreased to 31.6% on day 14, and was not detected through Day 28. One region of radioactivity and a polar region >10% AR were observed in the HPLC analyses of the biotic sludge starting on Day 3. The elimination rate constant, ke, was -0.1628 day-1.


Sediment Transformation (OECD 308) (Ref. VII):

DT50 (total system) = 1.68 – 3.4 days


Aerobic biodegradation of [14C] tenofovir DF was also evaluated in two sediment/water systems at 20°C for 28 days following OECD Guideline 308. Sediment/water systems were dosed with 1 mg/L [14C] tenofovir DF. Carbon dioxide (CO2) produced due to biodegradation was trapped and measured over the test period. Sediment and water samples were extracted and analyzed to determine extractable radioactivity. Water/sediment samples were analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation for the Taunton River and Weweantic River test systems. Water/sediment samples were extracted and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and high-performance liquid chromatography with radiometric detection (HPLC-RAM) for determination and profiling of extracted residues. The post-extraction solids (PES) were combusted and analyzed by LSC for determination of non-extractable residues. The volatile trapping solutions were analyzed by LSC for determination of 14CO2 and volatile organics. Non-extractable residues in day 28 PES samples were additionally characterized by extraction with a polar and non-polar solvent.


Average recovery ranged from 88.4 to 101% over the course of the study for both the Taunton River and Weweantic River test systems.


The results showed that [14C] tenofovir DF was degraded in total water/sediment systems with an observed half-life of 1.68 and 3.4 days at 20°C in the Taunton and Weweantic Systems, respectively. Corresponding half-lives at 12oC were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and were determined to be 4.74 and 9.09 days (Total System). Half-lives for the water layer were 1.26 days and 3.38 days at 20°C in the Taunton and Weweantic Systems, respectively. Corresponding half-lives at 12°C were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and were determined to be 2.88 and 7.44 days (Water Layer). Half-lives for the sediment extracts were 0.789 days and 5.83 days at 20°C in the Taunton and Weweantic Systems, respectively. Corresponding half-lives at 12°C were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and were determined to be 1.68 and 12.4 days (Sediment Extracts). Tenofovir DF does not undergo significant mineralization and CO2 production during the study ranged from 2.0 to 2.3%.


Evidence of primary biodegradation was observed for [14C] tenofovir DF in the aerobic water/sediment test systems. Three major transformation products (≥10% AR) developed in both the Taunton River and Weweantic River total systems over the course of the study and were designated as polars, TP 2, and TP 4. An additional major transformation product (≥10% AR) developed in the Taunton River total system and was designated as TP 1. These transformation products were identified by LC-MS/MS. Other minor peaks, not exceeding 5.0% AR at more than one interval, were observed in the water layer and sediment extracts and were not characterized further.


Justification of chosen biotic degradation phrase:

Since half-life < 32 days for total system, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is degraded in the environment.


Bioaccumulation

Partitioning coefficient (OECD 107) (Ref.VIII): 

Log Kow = 1.06 at pH 7


Justification of chosen bioaccumulation phrase:

Since log Kow < 4, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has low potential for bioaccumulation.


References

  1. Data from IQVIA ”Consumption assessment in kg for input to environmental classification - updated 2018 (data 2017)”.


  2. ECHA, European Chemicals Agency. 2008 Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment.http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm


  3. Smithers Viscient, 2019. “Tenofovir DF - 72-hour toxicity test with the freshwater green alga, Raphidocelis subcapitata: OECD 201”. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 25 Mar 2019. 66 p. Smithers Viscient Study No. 359.7085.


  4. Smithers Viscient, 2019. “Tenofovir DF - full life-cycle toxicity test with water fleas, Daphnia magna, under flow-through conditions: OECD 211”. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 7 Feb 2019. 68 p. Smithers Viscient Study No. 359.7088.


  5. Smithers Viscient, 2019. “Tenofovir DF - early life-stage toxicity test with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): OECD 210”. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 16 Apr 2019. 101 p.Smithers Viscient Study No. 359.7087.


  6. Smithers Viscient, 2019. “[14C]Tenofovir DF - determination of the biodegradability of a test substance in activated sludge based on OECD Method 314B”. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 19 Mar 2019. 64 p. Smithers Viscient Study No. 359.7082.


  7. Smithers Viscient, 2019. “[14C]Tenofovir DF - aerobic transformation in aquatic sediment systems: OECD 308”. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 15 Apr 2019. 198 p. Smithers Viscient Study No. 359.7083.


  8. Smithers Viscient, 2019. “Tenofovir DF - determining the partitioning coefficient (n-octanol/water) by the shake-flask method following OECD guideline 107”. Wareham (MA): Smithers Viscient; 21 Jan 2019. 76 p. Smithers Viscient Study No. 359.7080.