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Utökad övervakningMiljöinformationReceptstatusFörmånsstatus
GlaxoSmithKline

Inhalationspulver, avdelad dos 55 mikrog
(Vitt pulver i en grå inhalator)

Medel vid obstruktiva luftvägssjukdomar, antikolinergika

Aktiv substans:
ATC-kod: R03BB07
Läkemedel från GlaxoSmithKline omfattas av Läkemedelsförsäkringen.
  • Vad är miljöinformation?

Miljöpåverkan (Läs mer om miljöpåverkan)

Umeklidinium

Miljörisk: Användning av umeklidinium har bedömts medföra försumbar risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Det kan inte uteslutas att umeklidinium är persistent, då data saknas.
Bioackumulering: Umeklidinium har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


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Detaljerad miljöinformation

Detailed background information


Environmental Risk Classification


Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)

PEC is calculated according to the following formula:


PEC (μg/L) = (A*109*(100-R)/(365*P*V*D*100) = 1.5*10-6*A(100-R)


PEC = 0.00015 μg/L


Where:

A = 0.1 – 1.0 kg (market forecast range for API in Sweden year 2020, data from GSK Manufacturing Strategy). The upper range, 1 kg, has been used in the PEC calculation.


R = 0% removal rate (conservatively, it has been assumed there is no loss by adsorption to sludge particles, by volatilization, hydrolysis or biodegradation)

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 9 *106


V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (ECHA default) (Reference 1)


D = factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (ECHA default) (Reference 1)


Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)


Ecotoxicological studies


Green Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata):

IC50 96h (yield) = 910 μg/L (OECD 201) (Reference 4)

NOEC = 95.40 μg/L


Water flea:

Acute toxicity

No data


Water flea (Daphnia magna):

Chronic toxicity

NOEC 21 days (reproduction) = 6,250 μg/L (OECD 211) (Reference 5)


Rainbow Trout:

Acute toxicity

No data


Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas):

Chronic toxicity

NOEC 28 days (reproduction) = 370 μg/L (OECD 210) (Reference 6)


Other ecotoxicity data:

Chironomid

No data


Microorganisms in activated sludge

No data


PNEC = 95.40/10 = 9.54 μg/L


PNEC (μg/L) = lowest NOEC/10, where 10 is the assessment factor applied for three long-term NOECs. NOEC for alga (= 95.40 ug/L) has been used for this calculation since it is the most sensitive of the three tested species.


Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)


PEC/PNEC = 0.00015/9.54 = 1.57 x 10-5, i.e. PEC/PNEC ≤ 0.1 which justifies the phrase “Use of umeclidinium has been considered to result in insignificant environmental risk.”


Degradation


Biotic degradation


Ready degradability:

No data


Inherent degradability:

No data


Simulation studies:

Water-sediment study:

No data


Abiotic degradation


Hydrolysis:

No data


Photolysis:

No data


Justification of chosen degradation phrase:

There are no degradation data available for Umeclidinium. The phrase “The potential for persistence of Umeclidinium cannot be excluded, due to lack of data” is thus chosen.


Bioaccumulation


Partitioning coefficient:

Log Dow = 1.35 at pH 7 (OECD 107) (Reference 4)


Log Dow at pH 5 = 0.092

Log Dow at pH 7 = 1.35

Log Dow at pH 9 = 1.39


Justification of chosen bioaccumulation phrase:

Since log Dow < 4, the substance has low potential for bioaccumulation.


Excretion (metabolism)

In vitro studies showed that umeclidinium is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. The primary metabolic routes for umeclidinium are oxidative (hydroxylation, O-dealkylation) followed by conjugation (glucuronidation, etc), resulting in a range of metabolites with either reduced pharmacological activity or for which the pharmacological activity has not been established. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low. Plasma clearance following intravenous administration was 151 litres/hour. Following intravenous administration, approximately 58% of the administered radiolabelled dose (or 73% of the recovered radioactivity) was excreted in faeces by 192 hours post-dose. Urinary elimination accounted for 22% of the administered radiolabelled dose by 168 hours (27% of recovered radioactivity). The excretion of the drug-related material in the faeces following intravenous dosing indicated secretion into the bile. Following oral administration to healthy male volunteers, total radioactivity was excreted primarily in faeces (92% of the administered radiolabelled dose or 99% of the recovered radioactivity) by 168 hours post-dose. Less than 1% of the orally administered dose (1% of recovered radioactivity) was excreted in urine, suggesting negligible absorption following oral administration. Umeclidinium plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 19 hours in healthy volunteers, with 3% to 4% excreted unchanged in urine at steady-state (Reference 2).


PBT/vPvB assessment


Umeclidinium does not fulfil the criteria for PBT and/or vBvP.


All three properties, i.e. ‘P’, ‘B’ and ‘T’ are required in order to classify a compound as PBT (Reference 1). Umeclidinium does not fulfil the criteria for PBT and/or vBvP based on a log Dow < 4.


Please, also see Safety data sheets on http://www.msds-gsk.com/ExtMSDSlist.asp.


References

  1. ECHA, European Chemicals Agency. 2008 Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment.


  2. Pharmacokinetic properties: Metabolism and Elimination. Summary of Product Characteristics. Anora Ellipita 55 micrograms/22 micrograms Inhalation Powder. GlaxoSmithKline, April 2016.


  3. Moseley RH. GW642444M: Determination of the n-octanol: water partition coefficient. Report No. 8240788. Covance Laboratories Limited, December 2011.


  4. Burke J, Last G, and Goodband T. GW642444M: Inhibition of Growth to the Alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Report No. 8240789. Covance Laboratories Limited, November 2012.


  5. Burke J and Flenley A. Chronic effects of GW642444M to Daphnia magna. Report No. 8240791. Covance Laboratories Limited, April 2012.


  6. Burke J, Jakes M and Goodband T. Fish Early Life Stage Test (Pimephales promelas) with GW642444M. Report No. 8240790. Covance Laboratories Limited, January 2012.