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Janumet®

MSD

Filmdragerad tablett 50 mg/850 mg
(Kapselformad, rosa filmdragerad tablett märkt "515" på ena sidan.)

Perorala diabetesmedel, kombinationer

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ATC-kod: A10BD07
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  • Vad är miljöinformation?

Miljöinformation

Miljöpåverkan (Läs mer om miljöpåverkan)

Miljöinformationen för metformin är framtagen av företaget AstraZeneca för Ebymect, Komboglyze, Qtrilmet, Xigduo

Miljörisk: Användning av metformin har bedömts medföra låg risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Metformin bryts ned långsamt i miljön.
Bioackumulering: Metformin har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


Läs mer

Detaljerad miljöinformation

PEC/PNEC = 23.4 µg/L / 100 µg/L = 0.23

PEC/PNEC ≤ 1


Environmental Risk Classification


Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)

The PEC is based on the following data:


PEC (µg/L) = (A*109*(100-R))/(365*P*V*D*100)

PEC (µg/L) = 1.5*10-6*A*(100-R)


A (kg/year) =total sold amount API in Sweden year 2017, data from IQVIA (former IMS Health and Quintiles).

R (%) = removal rate (due to loss by adsorption to sludge particles, by volatilization,

hydrolysis or biodegradation) = 0 if no data is available.

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 9 *106

V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (ECHA default) (Ref. 1)

D = factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (ECHA default) (Ref. 1)

(Note: The factor 109 converts the quantity used from kg to μg).


A = 155977.33 kg

R = 0 

PEC = 1.5 x 10-6 x 155977.33 x (100-0) = 23.4 µg/L


Metabolism

Metformin hydrochloride is excreted unchanged in the urine. No metabolites have been identified in humans (Ref. 2).

Ecotoxicity data


Endpoint

Species

Common Name

Method

Time

Result

Ref

ErC50 – Based on Growth Rate

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

Green Alga

OECD 201

72 h

>100 mg/L

3

NOEC – Based on

Growth Rate

100 mg/L

NOEC – Based on

Growth Rate

Note 1

Unknown

Green Alga

99.5 mg/L

4

EC50 – Based on Immobilisation

Daphnia magna

Giant Water Flea

FDA 4.08

48 h

130 mg/L

5

NOEC - Based on Immobilisation

78 mg/L

NOEC – Based on Survival, Reproduction and Growth Rate

OECD 211

21 d

67 mg/L

6

NOEC – Based on Survival, Reproduction and Growth Rate

Note 2

54.1 mg/L

4

NOEC – Based on Reproduction

Ceriodaphnia dubia

Water Flea

ISO 20665

7 d

1 mg/L

LC50

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluegill sunfish

US FDA Technical Assistance Document 4.11

96 h

>982 mg/L

7

NOEC – Based on lack of mortality and abnormal effects

982 mg/L

NOEC – Based on hatch, survival, standard length and dry weight

Pimephales promelas

Fathead Minnow 

OECD 210

32 d

10 mg/L

8

NOEC – Based on hatch, survival, standard length and dry weight

Note 3

2.2 mg/L

6

NOEC – based on hatch, survival, standard length and dry weight

Note 1

Danio rerio

Zebra fish

11.1 mg/L

NOEC - Based on emergence and development rate

Chironomus riparius

Midge

OECD 218

28 d

100 mg/kg (dry weight)

9

NOEC - Based on emergence and development rate

>100 mg/kg

(dry weight)

Microbial Inhibitory Concentartion (MIC)

Anabaena flos-aquae

Nitrogen fixing bluegreen algae

FDA 4.02

-

100 mg/L

10

NOEC – Based on growth inhibition

80 mg/L

Microbial Inhibitory Concentartion (MIC)

Azobacter chroococcum

Nitrogen fixing Bacterium

800 mg/L

NOEC – Based on growth inhibition

400 mg/L

NOEC – Based on growth inhibition

Aspergillus clavatus

Fungi

1000 mg/L

Penicillium canescens

Chaetomium globosum

Pseudomonas fluorescens

Bacterium

Bacillus megaterium

Note 1 - Geometric average (GA) of 2 data points

Note 2 - Geometric average (GA) of 4 data points

Note 3 - Geometric average (GA) of 3 data points


PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)

Long-term tests have been undertaken for species from three tropic levels, based on internationally accepted guidelines. Therefore, the PNEC is based on results from the assessment of water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) study, NOEC = 1 mg/L, and an assessment factor of 10 is applied, in accordance with ECHA guidance (Ref. 11).


PNEC = 1000 µg/L/10 = 100 µg/L


Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)

PEC/PNEC = 23.4 / 100 µg/L = 0.23 µg/L, i.e. PEC/PNEC ≤ 1 which justifies the phrase “Use of metformin hydrochloride has been considered to result in low environmental risk.”.


In Swedish: ”Användning av metforminhydroklorid har bedömts medföra låg risk för miljöpåverkan.”.


Environmental Fate Data

Endpoint

Method

Test Substance Concentration

Time

Result

Ref

Percentage Aerobic Biodegradation

FDA 3.11

10 mg/L

28 d

0.6%

Not readily biodegradeable

12

Dissipation Half-life

OECD 308

1.0 mg/L (High Organic Matter Sediment)

102 d

DT50 = 6.59 days

(Total System)

13

1.0 mg/L (Low Organic Matter Sediment)

DT50 = 55.0 days

(Total System)

Hydrolysis Half-life

FDA 3.09

-

5 d

pH 5 = 0%

pH 7 & pH 9 = 1%

T1/2 = 25°C ≥ 1 year

14

Photolysis % deagradation and half -life

FDA 3.10

-

5 d

84.9 % (parent)

T1/2 28.3 days (Estimated)

15

Biodegradation


Results from the aerobic biodegradation test (Ref. 12), showed that metformin hydrochloride is not readily biodegradable.


Evidence from the OECD 308 study (Ref. 13) is that metfromin hydrochloride is likley to dissipate from the aqueous phase and partition into the sediment phase.


High organic matter (HOM) sediment system:


The average mass balance ranged from 93.3 – to 100.2% of applied radioactivity (AR) throughout the 102-day study. The AR declined rapidly in the water phase, by Day 14 26.3% and by Day 27 only 4.5% remained, with < 1% of the initial concentration remaining in the water phase by Day 102. At the end of the test, Day 102, 13.1% of the AR was associated with the sediment. Despite the investigation of a number of different extraction solvents (acetoniltrile: purified reagent water: concentrated hydrochloric acid), 12.8% remained non-extractable.


Metformin hydrochloride was extensively biodegraded, the cumulative amount of 14CO2 evolved was 64% of AR by Day 27. The total system half-life was 6.59 days.


In the water and the sediment combined, two degradation products were present at >10% AR at Day 14. However, these were transient degradation products and neither was detected from Day 56 onwards. These were not considered further.


Low organic matter (LOM) sediment system:


The average mass balance ranged from 93.3 – to 103.9% of AR. Dissipation of the radioactivity from the water to the sediment was slower than that observed in the HOM test vessels, with 28.8% remaining in the water phase at Day 14, and 11.2% remaining at Day 102. Very little mineralisation was observed (3.2% at Day 102). The radioactivity in the test vessel remained associated with the sediment. At Day 14, 73.6% remained associated with the sediment, of which 30.7% of the AR was extractable. At Day 102, 81.5% of the AR was associated with the sediment in the low organic matter (LOM) vessels, however the extractable fraction had decreased to 14.0% of the AR.


Extractability of metformin hydrochloride was good. The proporotion of radioactivity associated with the non-extractable residues (NER) increased throughout the study, 68% AR at Day 102. The NER are considered non-bioavailable and therefore removed in the calculation of the LOM DT50 value. The total system half-life was 55 days.


Differences in the two systems can be explained by the fact that the degradation of metformin hydrochloride is believed to depend on the specific microorganisms in the HOM matrix at the time of dosing the can use metformin hydrochloride as a carbon source and subsequently biodegrade metformin hydrochloride, whereas the microorganisms in the LOM matrix do so to a lower extent. Additionally, the HOM sediment system had a higher microbial biomass which may also contribute to a higher amount of biodegradation in the HOM systems versus the LOM system.


Based on the data above, metformin hydrochloride is not predicted to be readily biodegraded during wastewater treatment. However, there is evidence that metformin hydrochloride will degrade within the aquatic environment, both in biotic and abiotic transformation (FDA 3.10 and OECD 308).


Based on the above, the phrase “Metformin hydrochloride is slowly degraded in the environment.” has been assigned.


In Swedish: “Metforminhydroklorid bryts ner långsamt i miljön.” under the heading “Nedbrytning”.


Bioaccumulation

Metformin hydrochloride has has no significant bioaccumulation potential, as indicated by the low Log Kow (Log Kow = -1.43). Therefore the statement “Metformin hydrochloride has low potential for bioaccumulation” has been assigned.
 

In Swedish: ”Metforminhydroklorid har låg potential att bioackumuleras.” under the heading ”Bioackumulering”.



Physical Chemistry Data

Endpoint

Method

Test Substance Conditions

Result

Ref.

Solubility Water 

Unknown

25oC

300.5 mg/L

16

Partition Coefficient

Octanol-Water 

Unknown

-

Log Kow = -1.43

Sorption/Desorption

FDA 3.08

Wareham activated sludge

Kd = 10.3

Koc = 32.1

17


References

  1. [ECHA] European Chemicals Agency. Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment. Chapter R.16: Environmental exposure assessment (Version 3.0). February 2016.


  2. Summary of Product Characteristics for Komboglyze Film-Coated Tablets. Accessed 21st April 2016, and available at Link to document EMA


  3. Hoberg, J., Metformin Hydrochloride - Acute Toxicity to the Freshwater Green Alga,Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata OECD 201, Springborn Smithers Laboratories, Inc.:Report No. 12534.6219, 2007.


  4. Environmental Risk Assessment for metformin and its transformation product guanylurea in surface water. Caldwell.D, et al. SETAC Europe 24th Annual Meeting, Basle, Switzerland, May 11th–15th, 2014.


  5. Hicks, S. L.; Acute Toxicity of Metformin HCl to Daphnia magna ABC Laboratories, Inc. Report No. 41778, Jul 14, 1994.


  6. Putt, A., Metformin Hydrochloride - Full Life-Cycle Toxicity Test with Water Fleas Daphnia magna, Under Static-Renewal Conditions OECD 211, Springborn Smithers Laboratories, Inc.: Report No. 12534.6220, 2007.


  7. Sword M. Static Acute Toxicity of Metformin HCl to Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) ABC Laboratories, Inc. Report number 41779, July 1994.


  8. York, D., Metformin (BMS 207150) – Early Life-Stage Toxicity Test with Fathead Minnow, (Pimephales promelas), Following OECD Guideline 210. Smithers Viscient: Report No. 12534.6394, 2012.


  9. Bradley, M., Metformin Hydrochloride – Toxicity Test with Sediment-Dwelling Midges (Chironomous riparius) Under Static Conditions, Following OECD Guideline 218. Smithers Viscient: Report No. 12534.6396, 2011.


  10. Wood, J.; Microbial Growth Inhibition with Metformin HCl, ABC Laboratories, Inc. Report No. 41776, Jul 13, 1994.


  11. [ECHA] European Chemicals Agency. Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment. Chapter R.10: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for environment. May 2008.


  12. Bielefeld, T.A.; Aerobic Biodegradation of 14C-Metformin HCl in Water, ABC Laboratories, Inc. Report No. 41775, Aug 10, 1994.


  13. McKnight, C. [14C]Metformin Hydrochloride [14C](BMS 201750) – Aerobic

    Transformation in Aquatic Sediments Following OECD Guideline 308. Smithers

    Viscient: Report No. 12534.6398, 2011.


  14. Hallberg, C.; Hydrolysis of Metformin HCl as a function of pH, ABC Laboratories, Inc. Report No. 41774, Aug 10, 1994.


  15. Putman, K.; Determination of the Aqueous Photodegradation of 14C-Metformin HCl, ABC Laboratories, Inc. Report No. 41950, Aug 11, 1994.


  16. AstraZeneca Environmental Risk Assessment of Saxagliptin/Metformin Fixed Dose Combination [CV.000-594-251], June 2010.


  17. Sorption / Desorption Springborn Smithers Laboratories FDA-3.08 12534.6221. July 2007.


Sitagliptin

Miljörisk: Användning av sitagliptin har bedömts medföra försumbar risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Sitagliptin är potentiellt persistent.
Bioackumulering: Sitagliptin har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


Läs mer

Detaljerad miljöinformation

Environmental Risk Classification


Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)

PEC is calculated according to the following formula:


PEC (μg/L) = (A*109*(100-R))/(365*P*V*D*100) = 1.5*10-6*A(100-R)


PEC = 0.21 μg/L


Where:

A = 1379 kg (total sold amount API in Sweden year 2015, data from IMS Health).

R = 0 % removal rate (worst case assumption)

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 9 *106

V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (ECHA default) (Ref. I)

D = factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (ECHA default) (Ref. I)


Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)

Ecotoxicological studies


Green Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) (OECD 201) (Ref. II):

EC50 72 h (growth rate) > 39 mg/L

NOEC = 0.84 mg/L


Crustacean, water flea (Daphnia magna):

Acute toxicity

EC50 48 h (immobility) = 60 mg/L (OECD 202) (Ref. III)

NOEC = 25 mg/L


Chronic toxicity

NOEC 21 day (survival, reproduction, and growth) = 9.8 mg/L (OECD 211) (Ref. IV)

No effects seen up to highest concentration tested


Fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas):

Acute toxicity

LC50 96 h (mortality) > 100 mg/L (OECD 203) (Ref.V)

NOEC = 100 mg/L

No effects seen up to highest concentration tested


Chronic toxicity

NOEC 33 days (percent live normal fry, total length and dry weight) = 9.2 mg/L (OECD 210) (Ref. VI)

No effects seen up to highest concentration tested


PNEC = 84 μg/L (840 μg/L/ 10 based on the most sensitive chronic NOEC for the green algae with an assessment factor (AF) of 10)


Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)

PEC/PNEC = 0.21/84 = 0.002, i.e. PEC/PNEC ≤ .1 which justifies the phrase "Use of sitagliptin has been considered to result in insignificant environmental risk.”


Degradation


Biotic degradation


Test results 7 % degradation in 28 days (OECD 302B). (Ref. VII)


  • Test results 75% elimination (loss of parent) at Day 28, 40% evolved as CO2.
    DT50 for loss of parent = 21.1 hours; DT50 for CO2 production = 108 days. (OECD 314). (Ref VIII)


Abiotic degradation

Hydrolysis:

No significant degradation (Half life = 895 days at pH 7) (OECD 111). (Ref. IX)


Photolysis:

No potential for phototransformation between 295 and 800 nm (OECD 316). (Ref. X)


Justification of chosen degradation phrase:

Sitagliptin is slightly biodegradable in biological systems and does not meet the criteria for ready degradability (70% degradation in 7 days criterion was not met). In addition, the half-life in sludge for mineralization (108 days) is greater than the REACH persistence criterion for water (>40 days), although less than the criterion for sediment (>120 days). Sitagliptin does not undergo hydrolysis or photolysis, therefore the phrase “Sitagliptin is potentially persistent in the environment” was thus chosen.


Bioaccumulation

Partitioning coefficient:

Log Kow = -0.03 at pH 7 (OECD 107). (Ref.XI)


Justification of chosen bioaccumulation phrase:

Since log Kow < 4 at pH 7, the substance has low potential for bioaccumulation.



References

I. ECHA, European Chemicals Agency. 2008 Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm


II. Wildlife International, 2009. "Sitagliptin: A 96-Hour Toxicity Test with the Freshwater Alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata)," Project No., 105A-187A, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 01 June 2009.


III. Toxikon Corporation, 2004. "MK-0431: Acute Toxicity to the Water Flea, Daphnia magna, Under Static Conditions," Study No., 04J0005a, Jupiter, FL, USA, 08 July 2004.


IV. Wildlife International, 2006. "MK-0431: A Flow-Through Life-Cycle Toxicity Test with the Cladoceran (Daphnia magna)," Project No., 105A-146, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 27 June 2006.


V. Toxikon Corporation, 2004. "MK-0431: Acute Toxicity to Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas, Under Static Conditions," Study No., 04J0005b, Jupiter, FL, USA, 29 June 2004.


VI. Wildlife International, 2006. "MK-0431: An Early Life-Stage Toxicity Test with the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)," Project No., 105A-147, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 05 July 2006


VII. Wildlife International, 2005. "MK-0431: An Evaluation of Inherent Biodegradability Using the Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test," Project No., 105E-108, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 07 December 2005.


VIII. Wildlife International, 2009. "[14C] MK-0431:Biodegradation in Activated Sludge," Project No., 105E-146, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 17 September 2009.


IX. Wildlife International, 2005. "MK-0431: An Evaluation of Hydrolysis as a Function of pH," Project No., 105C-102, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 07 December 2005.


X. Wildlife International, 2005. " Phototransformation Potential of MK-0431," Project No., 105C-103, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 02 December 2005.


XI. Wildlife International, 2009. "Determination of n-Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient of MK-0431 by the Shake Flask Method," Project No., 105C-118, WIL, Easton, MD, USA, 27 January 2009.