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Risperdal®

MiljöinformationReceptstatusFörmånsstatus
Janssen

Filmdragerad tablett 0,5 mg
(brunröd, avlång 9 x 5 mm, ena sidan med skåra märkt RIS 0.5, andra sidan kan vara märkt JANSSEN)

Neuroleptikum

Aktiv substans:
ATC-kod: N05AX08
Läkemedel från Janssen omfattas av Läkemedelsförsäkringen.
  • Vad är miljöinformation?

Miljöpåverkan (Läs mer om miljöpåverkan)

Risperidon

Miljörisk: Användning av risperidon har bedömts medföra försumbar risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Risperidon är potentiellt persistent.
Bioackumulering: Risperidon har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


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Detaljerad miljöinformation

1. PREDICTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATION (PEC):

The Predicted Environmental Concentration is calculated according to the following formula:

PEC (µg/L)

=

A x 109 x (100-R) / 365 x P x V x D x 100

Where:

   

A (kg/year)

=

total actual API sales in Sweden for the most recent year 15.2176 kg (Sales from 2015 – IMS Health) [8]

R (%)

=

removal rate (due to loss by adsorption to sludge particles, by

volatilization, hydrolysis or biodegradation)

 

=

0% (worst-case scenario: no removal)

P

=

number of inhabitants in Sweden (9 x 106)

V (L/day)

=

volume of waste water per capita and day

 

=

200 (ECHA default) [7]

D

=

factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow

 

=

10 (ECHA default) [7]

PEC (µg/L)

=

0.0023 µg/L


2. PREDICTED NO EFFECT CONCENTRATION (PNEC)

2.1. Ecotoxicological studies

2.1.1. Algae

Algal growth inhibition test with the green alga (Selenastrum capricornutum) (OECD 201) [1]:

EC50 72 h = 26 mg/L (Inhibition of growth)


2.1.2. Crustacean

Acute

The Acute Toxicity of risperidone to the Water-flea (Daphnia magna) (FDA 4.08) [2]:

EC50 48 h = 6 mg/L (Immobilization)


Chronic

Not available


2.1.3. Fish

Acute

The Acute Toxicity of risperidone to the Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) (FDA 4.00) [3]:

LC50 96 h = 5.8 mg/L (Survival)


Chronic

Not available


2.1.4. Other ecotoxicity data

Toxicity to activated sludge in a respiration inhibition test (OECD 209) [4]:

EC50 3 h > 1000 mg/L (OECD 209)

NOEC = 47 mg/L


2.2. Calculation of Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)

PNEC (µg/l) = lowest EC50/1000, where 1000 is the assessment factor used. EC50 for the Bluegill sunfish 5.8 mg/L has been used for this calculation since it is the most sensitive of the three tested species.


PNEC = 5.8 mg/L/1000 = 5.8 µg/L


2.3. Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)

PEC/PNEC = 0.0023/5.8 = 0.0004 i.e. PEC/PNEC ≤ 0.1


Conclusion for environmental risk:

The calculated PEC/PNEC ratio is ≤ 1. Hence, risk assessment procedures would indicate that Risperidone would have insignificant long-term risk to the environment. This medicine is potentially persistent and has no significant bioaccumulation potential


3. DEGRADATION

3.1. Biotic degradation

3.1.1. Ready biodegradation

Biodegradability in a CO2-evolution test (FDA 3.11) [5]:

Based on the measurements of CO2 produced and DOC analysis, the percentage biodegradation calculated for Risperidone was 5%.


Based on the measurements of CO2 produced and DOC analysis, the percentage biodegradation calculated for the reference substance glucose was > 60%. Consequently, it can be concluded that Risperidone is not readily biodegradable.


Conclusion for degradation:

The medicine is potentially persistent.


4. BIOACCUMULATION

4.1. Partition coefficient octanol/water

Partition coefficient octanol/water (shaking flask method) [6]:

The average apparent partition coefficient (total solute measured, regardless of from) of R064766 in 1-octanol/aqueous solution at 25°C as determined by UV spectrometry is:


  • in 1-octanol/buffer pH 5: log P = 0.22

  • in 1-octanol/buffer pH 7: log P = 1.67

  • in 1-octanol/buffer pH 9: log P = 2.91


Conclusion for bioaccumulation:

As log Pow < 4, risperidone has no significant bioaccumulation potential.


5. REFERENCES

  1. Weytjens D.; The effect of risperidone on the growth of the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.; Janssen Study No. AASc/0004; May 14, 1993.

  2. Weytjens D.; The acute toxicity of risperidone to the water-flea (Daphnia magna), Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.; Janssen Study No. ADK6/0017; February 2, 1993.

  3. Weytjens D.; The Acute Toxicity of risperidone to the Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.; Janssen Study No. AFLm/0004; February 2, 1993.

  4. Seyfried B.; Toxicity to activated sludge in a respiration inhibition test, RCC Ltd.; RCC Study No. A35087; Janssen Study No. RMD704; April 6, 2006.

  5. Weytjens D., Biodegradability in a CO2-evolution test, Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.; Janssen Study No. BDAS0036; January 11, 1993.

  6. Van Dingenen J.; R064766: Partition coefficient; Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Report PC-CHAR 92-59 (921209) – R064766; December 09, 1992.

  7. ECHA, European Chemicals Agency. 2008 Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm

  8. IMS Health - 2015