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MiljöinformationReceptstatusFörmånsstatus
AstraZeneca

Depottablett 2,5 mg
(gula, runda, märkta A/FL på ena sidan och 2,5 på den andra, 8,5 mm)

Kalciumantagonister, dihydropyridinderivat

Aktiv substans:
ATC-kod: C08CA02
Läkemedel från AstraZeneca omfattas av Läkemedelsförsäkringen.
  • Vad är miljöinformation?

Miljöpåverkan (Läs mer om miljöpåverkan)

Felodipin

Miljörisk: Användning av felodipin har bedömts medföra låg risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Felodipin är potentiellt persistent.
Bioackumulering: Felodipin har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


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Detaljerad miljöinformation

PEC/PNEC = 0.035 μg/L /0.050 μg/L = 0.70

0.1 < PEC/PNEC ≤ 1


Environmental Risk Classification


Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)


PEC is based on following data:


PEC (µg/L) = (A*109*(100-R))/(365*P*V*D*100)


PEC (µg/L) = 1.5*10-6*A*(100-R)


A (kg/year) = total sold amount API in Sweden year 2017, data from IQVIA (former IMS Health and Quintiles).

R (%) = removal rate (due to loss by adsorption to sludge particles, by volatilization,

hydrolysis or biodegradation)

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 9 *106

V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (ECHA default)

D = factor for dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (ECHA default)

(Note: The factor 109 converts the quantity used from kg to μg).


A = 460.8 kg

R = 50% (adsorption to sludge)*


*The removal during sewage treatment (50%) is estimated using the EUSES model, Simple Treat, described in the ECHA Guidance Document (Ref. 1) where the following assumptions have been made: not readily biodegradable, vapour pressure

(VP) <1*10-6 Pa, water solubility 0.5 mg/L and Kdsludge = 2800 L/kg. Felodipin is an involatile solid with negliable VP at ambient conditions, a measured VP is not available, the nominal value used in this calculation assumes no losses to the atmosphere. Water solubility was measured at 22 – 25oC and may therefore lead to an over estimation of PEC, since at environmentally relevant temperatures water solubility may be lower.


PEC = 1.5 * 10-6 * 460.8* (100-50) = 0.035 μg/L


Metabolism

Felodipine is extensively metabolised in humans. In healthy volunteers about 62% of an orally given dose of felodipine was excreted into the urine. No parent compound was found in the urine and the identified metabolites (accounting for about 23% of the dose) are known to be less pharmacologically active than the parent compound. The remaining metabolites in urine (i.e. 39% of the dose) were unidentified polar compounds. Approximately 10% of the given oral dose was excreted in faeces, however the identity or pharmacological activity of these excreted products is not known (Ref 2 and 3).


Ecotoxicity data

Endpoint

Species

Common Name

Method

Time

Result

Ref.

EbC50- Based on Biomass

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capri-cornutum)

Green Alga

OECD 201

92/69/EEC

72 h

>0.322 mg/L

4

ErC50- Based on Average Specific Growth Rate

>0.322 mg/L

LC50

Daphnia magna

Giant Water Flea

US EPA 1985

48 h

0.62 mg/L

5

LC50

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Rainbow Trout

US FDA Technical Assistance Document 4.11

96 h

0.05 mg/L

6

NOEC - Based on Mortality & Symptoms of Toxicity

<0.016 mg/L

LC50

>0.2 mg/L

7

NOEC

0.2 mg/L

LC50

Pimephales promelas

Fathead Minnow

US EPA 1985

96 h

0.39 mg/L

5

LC50

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluegill Sunfish

US FDA Technical Assistance Document 4.11

96 h

0.66 mg/L

8

NOEC - Based on Mortality & Symptoms of Toxicity

0.22 mg/L

EC50 - Based on Respiration Inhibition

-

-

OECD 209

3 h

>10 mg/L

5


PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)

Short-term tests have been undertaken for species from three trophic levels, based on internationally accepted guidelines. The PNEC is based on the acute toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the most sensitive species, and an assessment factor of 1000 is applied, in accordance with ECHA guidance (Ref. 1).


PNEC = 50 µg/L/1000 = 0.050 µg/L


Environmental risk classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)

PEC/PNEC = 0.035 µg/L /0.050 µg/L = 0.70, which justifies the phrase "Use of felodipine has been considered to result in low environmental risk".


In Swedish: ”Användning av felodipin har bedömts medföra låg risk för miljöpåverkan” under the heading ”Miljörisk”.


Environmental Fate Data

Endpoint

Method

Test Substance Concentration

Time

Result

Reference

Percentage Biodegradation

OECD 301B

92/69/EEC

26.75 mg/L

28 d

< 5% ThCO2

9

Percentage Hydrolysis

US FDA Technical Assistance Document 3.09

10 mg/L

5 d

< 10 %

10

Photolysis Rate Constant

US FDA Technical Assistance Document 3.10

10 mg/L

6 h

0.318 h-1 @ pH 5

11

Photolysis Half-life

10 mg/L

T1/2 = 2.2 h @ pH 5

Photolysis Rate Constant

10 mg/L

0.335 h-1 @ pH 7

Photolysis Half-life

10 mg/L

T1/2 = 2.1 h @ pH7

Photolysis Rate Constant

10 mg/L

0.268 h-1 @ pH 9

Photolysis Half-life

10 mg/L

T1/2 = 2.6 h @ pH 9

Partition Coefficient Octanol Water

Experimental – method unknown

-

-

Log P = 3.86

12

Biotic degradation

Felodipine is not readily biodegradable. There are no further studies available regarding degradation of felodipine. Therefore, the substance has been assigned the risk phrase: "Felodipin is potentially persistent".


In Swedish: “Felodipin är potentiellt persistent” under the heading “Nedbrytning”.


Abiotic degradation

Felodipine is photodegradable ( = 2.1 h at pH 7).


Bioaccumulation

Since Log P < 4 the phrase "Felodipine has low potential for bioaccumulation" is assigned.


In Swedish: ”Felodipin har låg potential att bioackumuleras” under the heading ”Bioackumulering”.


Physical Chemistry Data

Endpoint

Method

Test Conditions

Result

Reference

Solubility Water


22 – 25oC

0.5 mg/L

13

Activated Sludge Adsorption Coefficient

OPPTS 835.1110

0.25 mg/L

Kd = 2800

L/kg

14

References


  1. [ECHA], European Chemicals Agency. Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment. Chapter R.10: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for environment (Table R10.4). May 2008


  2. Edgar B, Regårdh C G, Johnsson G, Johansson L, Lundborg P, Löfberg I and Rönn, O. Felodipine kinetics in healthy men. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38: 205-211. 1985.

  3. Hoffman, K-J and Andersson L. Metabolism of [14C] felodipine, a new vasodilating drug, in healthy volunteers. Drugs 34: 43-52. 1987.

  4. H154/82: Inhibition of growth to the alga Selenastrum capricornutum.

    Covance, USA. Report No. 265/55-D2145. June 1999 (Brixham Environmental Laboratory Report BD3977).

  5. Ecotoxicological characterisation of felodipine, MK0218.

    Environmental Engineering Laboratory (EEL), UK.

    (Brixham Environmental Laboratory Report BD4166). March 1994.

  6. Felodipine: Acute toxicity to Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, under static test conditions. Toxikon Environmental Sciences, USA. May 1994. (Brixham Environmental Laboratory Report BD4165).

  7. Photodegradates of felodipine: Acute toxicity to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, under static conditions. Toxikon Environmental Sciences, USA. Report No J9410003b, USA, April 1995.

  8. Felodipine: Acute Toxicity to Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, under Static Test Conditions. Toxicon Environmental Sciences, USA. Report No: J9312003a. May 1994. (Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Report BD4190).

  9. H154/82: Assessment of ready biodegradability by measurement of carbon dioxide evolution. Covance, USA. Report No: 98095-1 265/57-1018 Sept 1997. (Brixham Environmental Laboratory Report BD3971).

  10. Felodipine (MK-218): Determination of the Rate of Hydrolysis as a Function of pH at 50C. Toxicon Environmental Sciences, USA. Report No: J9307008b.December 1993. (Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Report BD4188).

  11. Felodipine (MK-218): Determination of Aqueous Photolysis.

    Toxicon Environmental Sciences, USA. Report No: J9307008a July 1994. (Brixham Environmental Laboratory Report BD4189)

  12. Sangster, J., Log KOW Databank, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Sangster Research Laboratories, 1994

  13. General Properties for Felodipine. AstraZeneca, June 2006. (Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Report BD4182).

  14. Felodipine: Adsorption and desorption to activated sludge.

    Brixham Environmental Laboratory, AstraZeneca, UK, Report BL7813

    October 2004