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Orudis®

Sanofi AB

Kapsel, hård 50 mg
(vit 5,5×16,3 mm)

Antiflogistikum med analgetisk och antipyretisk effekt

Aktiv substans:
ATC-kod: M01AE03
Utbytbarhet: Ej utbytbar
Läkemedel från Sanofi AB omfattas av Läkemedelsförsäkringen.
  • Vad är miljöinformation?

Miljöinformation

Miljöpåverkan

Ketoprofen

Miljörisk: Användning av ketoprofen har bedömts medföra låg risk för miljöpåverkan.
Nedbrytning: Ketoprofen är potentiellt persistent.
Bioackumulering: Ketoprofen har låg potential att bioackumuleras.


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Detaljerad miljöinformation

Environmental Risk Classification

Predicted Environmental Concentration

PEC is calculated according to the following formula:

PEC (µg/l) = (A*109*(100-R))/(365*P*V*D*100) = 1.5*10-6*A*(100-R)


PEC = 0.21 µg/l


Where:

A = 1421.8524 kg (total sold amount API in Sweden year 2018, data from IQVIA)

R = 0% removal rate (due to loss by adsorption to sludge particles, by volatilization, hydrolysis or biodegradation)

P = number of inhabitants in Sweden = 9*106

V (L/day) = volume of wastewater per capita and day = 200 (Ref I)

D = factor of dilution of waste water by surface water flow = 10 (Ref I)


Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)

Ecotoxicological studies


Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata):

EC50 72 h (growth rate): 30.2 µg/L

EC10 72 h (growth rate): 24.1 µg/L
NOEC 72 h (growth rate): 17.8 µg/L
Protocol: OECD 201
(Ref II)


Crustacean (Daphnia magna):

EC10 21 d (reproduction): 11200 µg/L

NOEC 21 d (reproduction): 9150 µg/L
Protocol: OECD 211
(Ref III)


Fish (Danio Rerio):

LC50 96 h (lethality): > 100000 µg/L
NOEC 96 h (lethality): > 100000 µg/L
Protocol: OECD 236
(Ref IV)


Fish (Danio Rerio):

LC10 28 days (lethality): 435 µg/L
NOEC 28 days (lethality): 93 µg/L
Protocol: OECD 210

(Ref V)


Other ecotoxicity data:


Lowest NOEC/10:


Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata):

NOEC 72 h (growth rate): 17.8 µg/L


PNEC: 17.8 µg/L/10 = 1.78 µg/L


Environmental Risk Classification (PEC/PNEC ratio)


PEC/PNEC: 0.21/1.78 = 0,12


0.1 < PEC/PNEC ≤ 1: Use of ketoprofen has been considered to result in low environmental risk.


Degradation

Biodegradation

Ready degradability:

Test showed 0% degradation in 29 days (protocol: ISO9439) (Ref VI)


Justification of chosen degradation phrase:

Ketoprofen fails to pass the ready degradation test according to OECD criteria, which justifies the phrase “Ketoprofen is potentially persistent”


Bioaccumulation

Partition coefficient:

Ketoprofen has low potential for bioaccumulation, as indicated by a log Kow of 1.65 at pH 7 (protocol: OECD 107)

(Ref VII)


Excretion

Around 80% of an administered dose is excreted in the urine, mainly as a glucuronide metabolite (Ref VIII). Ketoprofen metabolites are not active (Ref IX).


References

  1. ECHA, European Chemicals Agency, 2008 Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. https://echa.europa.eu/guidance-documents/guidance-on-information-requirements-and-chemical-safety-assessment

  2. Sanofi Internal report: Ketoprofen: Toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in an Algal Growth Inhibition Test. OECD 201. Report 117651210 , February 2017.

  3. Sanofi Internal report: Influence to Daphnia magna in a Semi-Static Reproduction Test. OECD 211. Report 117651221, March 2017.

  4. Sanofi internal report: Acute Toxicity to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos in a 96-hour Static Test. OECD 236. Report 117651238, February 2017

  5. Sanofi internal report: Ketoprofen: Toxicity to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in an Early-Life Stage Test. OECD 210. Report 135531232, January 2019.

  6. Internal report: Ketoprofen, Biodegradability test (1993)

  7. Internal report: Ketoprofen, Octanol-water partition coefficient determination (1993)

  8. Miles S., 2007, Ketoprofen, xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference, p1-7

  9. Williams R.L. and Upton R.A., 1988, The Clinical Pharmacology of Ketoprofen, The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 28 (issue supplement S1), p S13-S22